Yellow Fat Disease and Fish Oil

 

Yellow Fat Disease Is a Silent Killer

There’s no such thing as Yellow Fat Disease without DHA, EPA, or ALA. That’s the pig on the sofa that the “experts” can’t explain.

Even worse, beware DHA from algae, all (including the DHA in organic yogurt and baby food) derived from Franken-algae, products of corporate biotechnology.   

 

Google “fish oil,” and you’ll find it’s the greatest thing since sliced bread.  The same goes for DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and the other omega-3 fatty acids.  Google “yellow fat disease,” and you’ll find there are basically only three ways to get it …

 

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) from fish or algae

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) from fish or algae

ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) from flax, chia, hemp, etc.

 

Yellow Fat Disease is one of the commonest diseases on Earth, yet very few people have even heard about it.  Anyone with “age spots” has Yellow Fat Disease throughout their body — especially in the “liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells,” according to Wikipedia.  Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw (Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach, 1982) wrote …

“When lipofuscin deposits appear in the skin, they are often called ‘age spots’ or ‘liver spots,’ and are yellow-brown or brown spots which are not freckles, birthmarks, or scars.  

 

Lipofuscin pigment accumulates in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain too, more in some areas than in others. It is a pigment that can be made to fluoresce yellowish to yellow-green, orange, or yellow-brown under ultraviolet light. Measurement of this fluorescence is how the amount of pigment present is determined. Lipofuscin is found, in addition to neurons, in heart muscle, skeletal muscle, voluntary muscle, liver, adrenals, and other organs and tissues, particularly fatty tissues.”   According to Brian S. Peskin … “Twenty years from now, everybody’s going to look at this fish oil thing, and go, ‘How could we have been so stupid?'”

Atom's Blog on June 4, 2016

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DHA Is Due For a Comeuppance

I was considered a weirdo back in the early 1980s when I told people that saturated fats and cholesterol prevented heart disease.  I argued, “Just because the cops show up every time there’s a mugging in Central Park doesn’t mean the cops CAUSED the mugging. Having fewer cops on patrol increases the number of muggings. In like manner, having less cholesterol increases the number of heart attacks.”

 

I’m a weirdo again when it comes to EPA and DHA, but time is on my side.  You can lead a horse away from fish and algae, but you can’t make him stay away.  Ray Peat(“Regeneration and degeneration: Types of inflammation change with aging,” 2006-2016) wrote …

“In a study of prenatal learning (habituation rate), the experimenters found that the relative absence of the supposedly essential fatty acids improved the short term and long term memory of the fetus (Dirix, et al., 2009). The size of the baby was found to be negatively associated with the highly unsaturated fatty acids DHA and AA (Dirix, et al., 2009), showing a general growth-retarding effect of these environmentally derived fats.”  According to the same source … “As the consumption of PUFA has increased in the US and many other countries, the incidence of birth defects has increased.”

 

It’s easy to find warnings scattered among all the advertising hype about EPA and DHA being “essential” to human health.

Narayan Bhaskar & K. Miyashita (“Physiological Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)—A Review,” Anti-Angiogenic Functional and Medicinal Foods, 2007) wrote … “Less Desirable Effects Attributed to EPA and DHA 

  • “Reduced platelet count and long bleeding times

  • “Increased production and accumulation of erucic acid (C22:1) that may lead to heart lesions

  • “Higher vitamin E requirements to counter possible oxidation problems

  • “Higher intake of vitamin A and D there by manifesting in problems of hypervitaminosis

  • “Higher chances for consuming oxidation products (peroxides and aldehydes).”

So marine erucic acid is OK even though the FDA banned rapeseed oil erucic acid in 1956?

According to the same source … “These long-chain n-3 PUFA can alter gene expression by down-regulating proteoglycan degrading enzymes, inflammation inducible cytokines, and fatty acid synthase.”  It’s even worse if you’re crazy enough to eat farmed fish. Salmon and other fish are being fed very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFAs) manufactured from transgenic algae and/or oilseed crops.

 

Tara Duggan (“A new way to feed farmed salmon could take pressure off wild fish,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 13, 2016) wrote …

“AlgaPrime DHA replaces that fish oil and fish meal. To make it, TerraVia — a former biofuel company that was previously called Solazyme — has partnered with agribusiness company Bunge Limited to produce microalgae in huge fermentation tanks in Brazil. While other companies have produced algae oil with similar methods, it’s the scale and competitive price of the product that sets it apart.  “Set in the middle of a sugarcane farm and facility, the microalgae are fed sugar and reproduce rapidly, then dried and pressed into oil. ”

According to “TerraVia Announces New Head of Global Food Sales,” BiotechFinances, Apr. 29, 2016 … “TerraVia™ (formerly Solazyme, Inc.) (NASDAQ:SZYM), a pioneer in algae innovation, focused on food and nutrition and specialty ingredients, has announced that Charlie Ross, former Vice President of DuPont’s Proteins Business Unit, has joined TerraVia as Vice President of Global Sales.”

Better Living Through DuPont Biotechnology?

Not in my book.

Atom's Blog on May 27, 2016

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Death By DHA Under Various Names

Research docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the Internet, and what do you find?  There’s nothing but “scientists” and health gurus telling you how DHA is God’s gift to humanity; nothing but “experts” warning you that your brain cells will crumble to dust if you run short of Ma Nature’s gift from the sea.

 

Research Yellow Fat Disease, and what do you find?  There’s nothing but warnings about DHA causing Yellow Fat Disease in every creature from yeast to dogs, from flies to chickens, from bees to crocodiles, from birds to pigs, from fish to ferrets, from lobsters to horses, from rabbits to human beings, etc.  Age spots on your skin?  You’ve got Yellow Fat Disease. A few age spots on your skin indicate many more within — in erythrocytes, lysosomes, nerve cells, ganglion cells, intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, brain, retina, etc.  

 

Age spots are also called “liver spots.”  If DHA truly “supports brain development and protects neurological function,” why does the disease it causes (Yellow Fat Disease) cause Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?  Is this “supporting cognitive health,” the reason doctors recommend feeding it to nursing mothers and their babies?  Well, the ad men say DHA is “tailored for toddlers,” so that must mean it’s okay to shove this crap down a child’s mouth without their knowledge or consent.

 

If DHA truly “lowers blood pressure and heart rate,” why does the disease it causes (Yellow Fat Disease) cause Mulberry Heart Syndrome and a dehydrated, shrunken, brown-pigmented heart?

If DHA is truly “a powerful tool in the patient’s toolkit for helping to regulate inflammation,” why does the disease it causes (Yellow Fat Disease) cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sudden infant death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, apnea, diarrhea, flatulence, jaundice, and sepsis.

 

A powerful tool in the patient’s toolbox? Who writes this jive anyway? Do people actually believe this sort of crap? Brown Fat Disease works just as well as Yellow Fat Disease, as far as names ago. More specifically, it’s name is Yellow-Brown Fat Disease.

More people suffer from Yellow Fat Disease than cancer and heart disease combined, but it’s so slow-moving (usually, but not always) no one seems to notice. It’s like the story of the frog with its brain removed allowing itself to be cooked alive in slowly heated water.

This metaphor is particularly apt since Yellow Fat Disease damages the brain.  Many diseases are Yellow Fat Disease in disguise — death by DHA under many other names.

Atom's Blog on May 21, 2016

 

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Yellow Fat Disease & Wikipedia

I have a love-hate affair with Wikipedia. Any internet researcher who avoids Wikipedia is working with one arm tied behind their back.

But when it comes to Alternative Medicine, you might as well be doing your research on Quackwatch.  Case in point — Yellow Fat Disease, listed on Wikipedia as Pansteatitis.  According to Wikipedia …  “The condition has been found in cats, fish, herons, terrapins and Nile crocodiles, piscivores such as otters, cormorants, Pel’s fishing-owls and fish eagles. The disorder is also regularly found in captive-bred animals fed on high fish diets, such as mink, pigs and poultry. It shows as a rubber-like hardening of fat reserves which then become unavailable for normal metabolism, resulting in extreme pain, loss of mobility and death.”  Highly-unsaturated fatty acids aren’t mentioned. Ditto fish and fish oils.

And human beings aren’t on the list of species “the condition has been found in.”  According to Wikipedia (playing dumb just like National Geographic Magazine) …

“Yellow Fat Disease “is thought to be brought about by any or a combination of a number of factors which include …

“Vitamin E deficiency

“Microcystin poisoning

“Heavy metals and other pollutants such as DDT, PCBs, PCDDs and brominated flame retardants

“Ingestion of affected animals

“Pathogens as yet unidentified”

According to Segen’s Medical Dictionary (2012), Pansteatitis is defined as …“A vitamin E deficiency syndrome affecting various mammals, in particular cats, who are fed excess omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oils, especially tuna.”  According to the same source, the “clinical findings” include …“Greasy, dull coat and flaky skin; severe pain when touched; anorexia, fever. In humans, excess fish-oils cause increased bleeding time, especially after aspirin ingestion, which may play a role in cardiac necrosis and increased susceptibility to catecholamine-induced stress.”

Atom's Blog on May 15, 2016 

 

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Omega-3 Fats? Worth the Price?

Even moderate amounts of omega-3 fats may help ward off gum disease, according to new research.  “May” is a weasel-word, an escape hatch for after the latest research is proven wrong.  But let’s assume that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other omega-3 fats DO help ward off gum disease.  The foremost question isn’t, “Do omega-3 fats help ward off gum disease?”

The foremost questions are, “HOW do omega-3 fats help ward off gum disease, and IS IT WORTH THE PRICE?”  Yellow Fat Disease is the elephant in the living room.  Make sure it doesn’t take a dump on your lounge chair.

 

Omega-3 fats MAY BE anti-inflammatory. Cortisone IS anti-inflammatory.  Why not substitute cortisone for omega-3 fats?  The most practical answer is, “Because I’m not that stupid!”  Yes No Maybe for an emergency situation? Such as cortisone’s discontinuation?

 

Lyon P. Strean (Cortisone in Dentistry, 1957) wrote …  “The stress of operation superimposed on a hypoactive adrenal cortex may produce an adrenal crisis resulting in shock and death. Dentists are urged to acquire equipment for intravenous injection, learn the technic and be prepared for an unforeseen emergency.”  So why not use cortisone for each and every reason during each and every season?  Readers of Atom’s Blog are too sophisticated for me to list the side effects of cortisone use and abuse.

 

According to Adano Ley (Swami Nitty-Gritty) …  “I can get rid of someone’s pain in one treatment. It takes a minimum of ten treatments if they use cortisone.”

 

Excess omega-3 fats — without enough selenium and tocopherols — result in Yellow Fat Disease.  Combining junk food with omega-3 fats speeds up the process.  Did you know that excess polyunsaturated fats can initiate an adrenal crisis?  Comparing PUFAs and cortisone are only matters of QUANTITY and DURATION.

Atom's Blog on May 5, 2016 

 

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***  The Emperor’s New Clothes (DHA & EPA)  ***

The deceptive marketing of DHA and EPA reminds me of the Hans Christian Andersen tale, The Emperor’s New Clothes, or, in this case, The Emperor’s New Yellow Fat Disease Clothes. Don’t think of me as an expert when it comes to DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). Instead, I’m like the child who cries out … “BUT HE ISN’T WEARING ANYTHING AT ALL!” DHA isn’t the product of science. It’s the product of marketing.  The child is crying out again about DHAfrom algae and microalgae — biotech DHA courtesy of NASA and its spin-off corporation, Martek Biosciences.

 

Why does a government agency like NASA (National Aviation and Space Administration) want to market a product that gives infants premature Alzheimer’s disease (premature lipofuscinosis)?  According to a NASA website …  “To create Formulaid [infant formula], the company extracted the oil from the algae cells and combined it with another fatty acid, arachidonic acid, taken from a species of fungus. Both are found in human breast milk but were not in most baby formulas at the time. Martek then discovered, developed, and  commercialized a different strain of algae, Schizochytrium, to make DHA-rich oils for human nutritional supplement and food and beverage applications. DHA omega-3 oil from this algae is now used in more than 500 human products, and Schizochytrium algae is also used to produce DHAgold for animal feed applications.”

 

Note the phrase “discovered, developed, and commercialized” — code for biotech.  DHA gold ™ is fed to chickens and marketed as “omega-3 eggs,” “omega-3 mayonnaise,” “omega-3 cereal,” etc.

 

According to a Martek website … “‘We are excited to invigorate our focus on providing a sustainable source of DHA omega-3 for animal nutrition,’ said Christian Martin, director of Martek’s global animal nutrition group. ‘Throughout Martek’s history we have concentrated on the benefits of DHA for human health and now — through our increased focus on animal nutrition — we are working to enrich the foods we eat and provide better health for the animals we care for.  The addition of a state-of-the-art drying facility coupled with a new look and feel for DHA gold underscores our commitment to support animal nutrition for pets, horses, aquaculture,poultry and swine.'”

 

DHA franken-algae has been dubbed a “functionally conserved nutrient” by its marketers.  Don’t you just love the way that phrase rolls off your tongue?  Now we know for sure that we’re safe from the dangers of DHA franken-algae because that phrase sounds so doggone scientific.  Don’t worry, new mothers, DHA-franken-algae is “safe” for your baby because it’s a “functionally conserved nutrient.”

Don’t worry, pet owners, DHA-franken-algae is “safe” for your pet dogs, cats, horses, and bunny-rabbits because it’s a “functionally conserved nutrient.”  Who needs Oral Roberts for miraculous healing?  All you need is Oral Wording — “functionally conserved nutrient.”

 

Martek also sells fluorescent algae proteins in case you enjoy glowing in the dark.  Columbia Biosciences bought Martek in 2007, doing business under such names as Amerifit, Estroven, Azo, Culturelle, Cardiostat, Flex Able, SofTouch, Sootherbs, Vitaball, etc.  Royal DSM NV “sealed a billion dollar deal,” acquiring Martek in 2011, renaming it Nutritional Lipids, to “drive Martek’s predominantly US-based omega-3 DHA infant nutrition business to new shores.”  Open wide, sweet innocent infants of the world. DHA-franken-algae and its free-radical attack lipids are coming your way.

Atom's Blog on May 2, 2016

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Yellow Fat Disease Of the Brain

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and highly-unsaturated fatty acids precede the amyloid plaque “causing” Alzheimer’s disease.  Domenico Pratico, Kunihiro Uryu, Susan Leight, John Q. Trojanoswki, & Virginia M.-Y. Lee (Increased Lipid Peroxidation Precedes Amyloid Plaque Formation in an Animal Model of Alzheimer Amyloidosis, The Journal of Neuroscience, Jun. 15, 2001) wrote … “Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (Markesbery and Carney, 1999; Pratico ` and Delanty, 2000). The CNS is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage because it has a high energy requirement, a high oxygen consumption rate, and a relative deficit of antioxidant defense systems compared with other organs (Floyd, 1999).  Oxidative damage to the CNS predominantly manifests as lipid per oxidation (LPO) because of the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are particularly susceptible to oxidation.”  Meanwhile, back in the 1980s. (“That which has been is what will be, That which is done is what will be done, And there is nothing new under the sun.”)

 

Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw, Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach, 1982) wrote …

“We know that polyunsaturated fats are much more susceptible to oxidation and the subsequent generation of free radicals. Since there is a high content in the brain of the very highly polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexanoic acid (the precursor of which is dietary linolenic acid, also polyunsaturated), it is likely that a major part of brain aging is due to free radicals generated during the abnormal, inadequately controlled oxidation of these fatty acids. Possibly the decline in sensory perception associated with age may be due at least in part to free radical damage in the brain.  Sensory nerves involving vision, hearing, taste, and smell all contain large amounts of very easily per oxidized docosahexanoic acid.”  The very highly polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexanoic acid (DHA) drops cholesterol levels, but there’s a price to pay.  According to the same source …  “The most commonly used method of lowering serum cholesterol is to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats in the diet. This tends to block cholesterol synthesis. Polyunsaturated fats are much more subject to free radical autoxidation that creates carcinogenic and immune-suppressant organic peroxides. Both animals in experiments and humans in long-term cardiovascular studies have exhibited an elevated incidence of cancer when saturated fats were replaced with polyunsaturated fats.” etc. 

 

Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) can be found in …

algal oil

anchovy oil

cod liver oil

DHA-fortified foods

DHA-fortified prenatal vitamins

DHA-fortified supplements

fungal oil

herring oil

green-lipped mussel oil

krill oil

lake trout oil

mackerel oil

marine phytoplankton

microalgal (single cell) oil

omega-3 eggs

sablefish oil

sardine oil

seal oil

shark liver oil

tuna head oil

etc.

Atom's Blog on May 1, 2016

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Yellow Fat & White Muscle Diseases

White Muscle Disease is just another way of saying Yellow Fat Disease.  They’re both caused by HUFAs and PUFAs — highly-unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3s) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6).  HUFAs?   Think EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).  According to Wikipedia …

“While the potential roles of DHA in the mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease are under active research, studies of fish oil supplements, which contain DHA, have failed to support claims of preventing cardiovascular diseases.”  (Somehow the Macho Medical Media Mafia assigned to monitor the Church of Wikipedia let the above statement slip through their surveillance network.)

 

So White Muscle Disease is Yellow Fat Disease under another name. So is Nutritional Myodegeneration (NMD) and …

Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy

Mulberry Heart Disease

Hepatosis Dietetica

Stiff Lamb Disease

It’s politically incorrect to name the numerous human versions of Yellow Fat Disease.  According to “Nutritional Myopathies in Ruminants and Pigs,” The Merck Veterinary Manual, 2009-2015 … “In mulberry heart disease, the characteristic lesions are a pericardial sac grossly distended with straw-colored fluid that contains fibrin strands, and extensive hemorrhage throughout the epicardium and myocardium. Microscopically, the heart shows both vascular and myocyte lesions; in addition to interstitial hemorrhage, there is usually extensive myocardial necrosis together with fibrin thrombi in capillaries.”

Atom's Blog on April 24, 2016

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Yellow Fat Disease & Newborns

Yellow fat disease attacks most living organisms, from yeast to dogs, from flies to horses, from bees to human beings.  Lipofuscin/ceroid pigments attack the liver, heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, skeletal muscles, brain, retina, nerves, ovarian cells, mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.  The bogus fish oil business rakes in $1.2 billion a year in the U.S. alone, and it’s global profits are expected to keep rising unless jokers like Atom Bergstrom throw a monkey wrench into the plans of companies like Omega Protein Corporation, FF Skagen A/S, TASA, FMC Corporation, Copeinca AS, Corpesca SA, Colpex international, TripleNine, Pesquera Diamante S.A, Marvesa Holding N.V., Pesquera Exalmar, etc.

 

H.V. Brooks, C.G. Rammell, J.J. Hoogenboom, & D.E. Taylor (“Observations on an outbreak of nutritional steatites (yellow fat disease) in fitch (Mustella putorius furo),” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Sept. 1985) wrote …  “An outbreak of nutritional steatites in farmed fitch (Mustella putorius furo) caused by feeding high levels of dietary polyunsaturated fat was investigated. The disease affected mainly 13 to 15 week rapidly growing kits; 793 kits were affected and 183 died. The outbreak was quickly controlled by lowering the level of polyunsaturated fat in the diet and administering high doses of vitamin E.”  According to the same source … “Affected fitch had normochromic microcytic anaemia, lowered liver iron levels, increased thrombocytes and acute inflammatory leucograms. Skeletal or cardiac myopathy was not observed grossly or histologically in any of the animals examined. The diet contained high levels of polyunsaturated fat (7.7%DM), a high proportion being docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids which were derived from the squid component (40%) of the ration.”  Powerful corporate and political forces are intent on feeding DHA and EPA to NEWBORNS and to SCHOOL CHILDREN alike.

 Atom's Blog on April 12, 2016

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Yellow Fat Disease & Frozen Fish

Depressed 99-pound weaklings are subject to Yellow Fat Disease too.  Vitamin E deficiency is caused by Yellow Fat Disease.

Note the words in the article below — “there has been no effective treatment for chronic vitamin E deficiency.”  Taking vitamin E “after the fact” for Yellow Fat Disease is like taking Synthroid® (levothyroxine sodium) after the fact for thyroid disease.  Eating the same highly-unsaturated fatty acids and expecting different results is nutritional lunacy.

 

Sontaya Manawatthana & Chaiyan Kasorndorkbua (“Steatitis and Vitamin E deficiency in captive olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea),” Kyoto University Research Information Repository) wrote … “Steatitis [yellow fat disease], which is caused by vitamin E deficiency, was observed in 3 captive Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Phuket Marine Biological Center, Phuket Province, Thailand during March to August 2005.  Clinical findings had only shown depression and emaciation.  Necropsy had revealed firm yellowish-brown masses distributed in fat tissues throughout the body.  The predisposing cause of the disease is considered to be resulting from feeding these turtles mainly with frozen fish for more than 20 years, which can lead to vitamin E deficiency.

 

Since there has been no effective treatment for chronic vitamin E deficiency, changes of the feeding from frozen fish to fresh fish and vitamin E supplementation of 100 IU/kg of fish fed have been recommended as a preventive treatment for the rest of the sea turtles in the center.”  It’s almost true that “there has been no effective treatment for chronic vitamin E deficiency.” Undoing the actions of the past can’t be overcome by taking a vitamin or mineral or interrupting one’s usual lifestyle with a “cleansing fast” or a series of enemas or colonics.  Changing WHAT goes down the gullet WHEN for an extended period of time and letting Mather Nature undo the damage truly the Nourishing Way of the Tao.

Atom's Blog on April 10, 2016

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Yellow Fat Disease = Aging (& Age Spots)

Yellow Fat Disease and aging are nearly synonymous.  “Age spots” on the skin mean aging is winning.  They’re not called “age spots” for nothing.  “Age spots” are the tip of the iceberg.  According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine … “Lipofuscin is found in heart muscle and smooth muscles and is also called the aging pigment.”  According to Wikipedia (sometimes this self-proclaimed encyclopedia is actually accurate) …  “It [lipofuscin] is considered to be one of the aging or ‘wear-and-tear’ pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells.”

 

Lipofuscin isn’t really a “wear-and-tear” pigment — it’s caused by HUFAs and PUFAs, not working out at the gym or jogging at the beach.  HUFAs are highly-unsaturated fatty acids — or in straight-talking plain English, highly peroxidizable, age-spot producing fatty acids.

HUFAs — also called long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) — include docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

 

But aren’t these omega-3 oils supposed to be good for you?  Doug and Mel and an army of holistic health gurus, like Drs. Oz and Weil, say so.  Well, then it MUST be true.  The Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the American Heart Association, and the American Dietetic Association advise eating two eight-ounce servings of fish every week to get them. Ray Peat(“The Great Fish Oil Experiment,” 2006-2016) wrote …  “In declaring EPA and DHA to be safe, the FDA neglected to evaluate their antithyroid, immunosuppressive, lipid per oxidative (Song et al., 2000), light sensitizing, and antimitochondrial effects, their depression of glucose oxidation (Delarue et al., 2003), and their contribution to metastatic cancer (Klieveri, et al., 2000), lipofuscinosis and liver damage, among other problems.”

 

Anyone praising the virtues of DHA and EPA has to consider the Elephant In the Living Room — Yellow Fat Disease.  DHA and EPA = Yellow Fat Disease and its tag-along afflictions of White Muscle Disease, Mulberry Heart Disease, Brown Atrophy of the Heart, Brown Atrophy of the Liver, Hepatosis Dietetica, Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy, Progressive Lipofuscinosis, etc.  Again, “age spots” are just the tip of the iceberg, and if you don’t cleanse them out of your body, you’re in for a rude awakening.

Atom's Blog on April 9, 2016

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Something Fishy About Astaxanthin

Actually, this blog entry might be better titled, “Something NOT Fishy About Astaxanthin.”  According to the Atlantic Canada Fish Farmers Association …  “Much of the protein used in fish feed comes from small, bony fish — such as anchovies and mackerel — which are unsuitable for human consumption. Other sources of protein include soybean meal, corn gluten meal, canola meal, wheat gluten and poultry by-products.  Essential vitamins, minerals and carotenoids — which provide salmon with vitamin A and give salmon their pink colour — are added to their diet.”

 

Astaxanthin provides the pink color, and most of it is synthetic. Michael McCoy (“In The Pink: Seemingly lucrative fish-coloring business proves hard for newcomers to crack,” Chemical & Engineering News, Oct. 29, 2007) wrote … “BASF says its production process takes 14 steps, which is the longest synthesis sequence the company conducts for a single substance. In contrast, when production is by fermentation or extraction from algae, a living organism handles the messy molecule-building details.  “Yet, today, chemical synthesis still dominates astaxanthin production, a business that is worth more than $150 million per year worldwide.”

 

Genetically engineered food coloring, anyone?  Varda Mann, Mark Harker, Iris Pecker, & Joseph Hirschberg (“Metabolic engineering of astaxanthin production in tobacco flowers,” Nature Biotechnology, 2000) wrote ,,, “Using metabolic engineering, we have modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to produce astaxanthin, a red pigment of considerable economic value.”

What do wild salmon eat when they’re not locked up and force-fed synthetic astaxanthin in Piscatorial Penitentiary?  They eat shrimp, krill, crayfish, herring, eels, squid, grasshoppers, caddisfly larvae, etc.  They get their pinkitude from the natural color of shrimp, krill, and algae, not the synthetic biotech version of astaxanthin “useful for fish flesh staining.”

Atom's Blog on March 12, 2016

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Something Fishy About Omega-3 Oils

Polyunsaturated fatty acids generate oxidative stress — an overload of free radicals.  More oxidative stress creates more inflammation creates more lipo-pigments,namely, lipofuscin and ceroid “wear and tear” granules.  Lipo-pigments are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (no saturated fats), and are the secondary cause of yellow fat disease.

 

The primary cause is omega-3 fatty acids — ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).

 

Yellow fat disease (steatites) impacts numerous organisms, from yeast to cats, from flies to dogs, from bees to crocodiles, from fish to horses, from chickens to pigs, from monkeys to human beings.  Brain fat gets rancid too.

The order of rancidity is …

highly-unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)

—> polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

—> monounsaturated fatty acids

—> saturated fatty acids

—> cholesterol

 

If omega-3 fatty acids are harmful, why are the fish oil pills sold in the U.S. a $1.2 billion industry?  Why is the global market supposed to reach $4.08 billion by 2022?  Why is it being forced upon public school children as in Texas?  Corporate marketers say it’s because of “rising consumer awareness regarding benefit of the product.”  Maybe there are other reasons.  Niir Board (Modern Technology of Oils, Fats & Its Derivatives, 2002) wrote …  “As a class the marine oils are among the cheapest of all the fats and oils. They are used in edible fat products, in soap, and in protective coatings, although in none of these fields are they considered as desirable raw materials as ordinary vegetable and animal fats.”

Atom's Blog on March 11, 2016

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Source: One Radio Network - Atom's Blog

Extreme Health Radio Ep #423 (after 40 min mark)

Parent Essential Oils (PEOs): The DIFFERENCE

I am often asked how my EFA-based recommendations differ from others. The answer is simple but very significant. The term “Essential Fatty Acids” is being misused so frequently that I was compelled to coin a new phrase, Parent Essential Oils (PEOs).  This term “Parent Essential Oils” refers to the only two true essential fatty acids: parent omega-6 (LA) and parent omega-3 (ALA).

 

The term “parent” is used because these are the whole, unadulterated form of the only two essential fats your body demands, as they occur in nature.  Once PEOs are consumed your body changes a small percentage of them—about 5%—into other biochemicals called “derivatives,” while leaving the remaining 95% in parent form.

 

This is crucial to understand. There are a host of omega-6 and omega-3 oils being sold as EFAs that are not EFAs, but rather nonessential derivatives such as EPA, DHA, and GLA.

 

Fish oils are made up almost exclusively of omega-3 derivatives.   Scientifically and biochemically, calling derivatives such as EPA, DHA and GLA by the term “EFA” is wrong.   Derivatives are not EFAs because they are not essential — your body has the ability to make them as needed.  

 

My research has shown that supplementing with the derivatives so commonly found in the marketplace and mislabeled as “EFAs” can easily be harmful to your health.  Why are the parent forms—PEOs—so important?  Many of the EFAs sold in the stores consist of manufactured EFA derivatives.  

 

Your body doesn’t need or want these derivatives, because it makes its own derivatives out of the Parent Essential Oils (PEOs) you consume as it needs them. Taking fish oil and other health-food-store “EFAs” often overdoses you with derivatives, which can be very harmful.

 

Don’t make the common “EFA mistake” by unknowingly substituting derivatives for parents!  Since the term has become so confused by so many it is time to focus on the essence of what they are and why they are so vital to our health and well- being.

      

From this point forward it is Parent Essential Oils (PEOs) that get center stage.

Physicians and health professionals around the world rely on my scrupulously detailed research. Understanding how PEOs work is essential to your daily nutritional regimen. I recommend that everyone always demand to see solid science before taking any supplements or medications so you can avoid future problems.

 

Importance of Special Fats Called PEOs

Our bodies require special fats that make it possible, among other important functions, for sufficient oxygen to reach the cells. These special fats are highly oxygen- absorbing, and are called EFAs.  However, the PEOs (Parent Essential Oils)—not the commonly termed EFAs—are what’s important.   PEOs consist of parent omega-6 and parent omega-3. “Parent” means they are the whole form of the essential oil as it occurs in nature before it’s broken down or built up into other biochemical substances, which are called “derivatives.”

 

They MUST be Consumed Daily

Every one of your 100 trillion cells is surrounded by a membrane (a thin enclosure). The cell membrane is half fat—it contains virtually no structural carbohydrate. A portion of the fat making up the membrane is saturated.

 

 “Saturated” means chemically nonreactive—in other words, it doesn’t easily react with, or absorb, the oxygen that comes into contact with it. The other portion of the fat in the membrane is, however, “unsaturated”—it DOES easily absorb oxygen. One of the major functions of unsaturated (also called “polyunsaturated”) fats in the cell membrane is to help the inside of the cell absorb oxygen. The saturated fats in the membrane function as a barrier to help protect the delicate, highly reactive, oxygen-absorbing, energizing, unsaturated fats in the membrane.

 

Pharmacological overloads of derivatives, particularly from fish oil (or evening primrose oil alone and borage oil alone), are not required and can be extremely harmful.  A dietary supplement should contain PEOs with few derivatives.

   

Source : PDF Report by Professor Brian Peskin

The Dramatic Importance of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and Facts that May Contradict What You Have Already ‘Learned’  ---   By John Claydon D.Hom
 

This subject can appear complicated and contradictory, so if you consider yourself up to speed then it is essential that you read the information from Brian Peskin, a world leading researcher on the subject. www.brianpeskin.com

 

If you are relatively new to this subject then the task is easier.  Just supplement your diet with mainly Omega 6 unprocessed oils that have not been heated or processed in any way (such as a handful of raw nuts every day - mainly use walnuts, and almonds - if you have trouble chewing, grind them in a coffee/food grinder - you can add some sea salt and olive oil to make a raw nut spread - keep in the fridge and eat daily - about one dessertspoon).  If you would like a ready made supplement I cannot recommend a more therapeutic supply of unprocessed, unheated, oil than Black Seed Oil (Available from Regenerative Nutrition).  Black Seed Oil this will compliment the raw nuts.

 

Avoid all processed and heated oils like the plague.  These are the biggest single threats to your health.  Most processed food has processed and heated oils added such as hydrogenated oils, vegetable oils (heat extracted normally) trans-fatty acids and so on.  Frying with vegetable oils produces degraded oils that Brian Peskin discusses in his writings.  If you must fry, coconut oil is the least toxic, on heating, olive oil coming in second…but best to use low temperature frying, or even better not to fry at all.

 

Do NOT avoid Cholesterol containing foods. All of the newspapers and health services are simply copying the incorrect information given on this subject (this is discussed further in the article Statins and Increased Cancer: The Hidden Story and a New Solution by Brian Peskin, BSEE.  Cholesterol is an essential nutrient and without it we could die.  It does not clog the arteries, and has been contained abundantly in the natural diet of man for thousands of years with no link to heart disease.

 

Fish Oils and Vitamin D Deficiency

Do not take fish oils as your main supplement for essential fatty acids or even as part of your essential fatty acid supplements. Previously I gave the advice, like many other nutritionists to take regular cod liver oil as a way of not only combating essential fatty acid deficiency but also as a way of reducing vitamin D and A deficiency. Brian Peskin describes, and as always gives true results not just theory, as to why supplementing with fish oil is often counterproductive. 

 

Many people suffer a sunlight deficiency and hence Vitamin D deficiency. It does not matter how good the diet and supplements are without sufficient vitamin D.  This is essential for optimum health.  Research has established that at least 1,000 IU a day of vitamin D is required, and preferably double that for the first few months, to overcome chronic failure to expose the skin regularly to sunlight. This is available in supplement form as Colloidal Minerals with Boron & Vitamin D.

 

As can be seen in the chart below nature provides vastly more omega 6 than 3 in nuts and seeds, and this corresponds to our bodily needs. Linseed does contain more omega 3 than 6, but in a natural situation as they are so small it would be difficult to obtain a large amount on a regular basis. We do not recommend Linseeds or linseed oil as a supplement due to the need for more omega 6 than 3 as discussed in this article, and Brian Peskins articles and extensive research. Of the common nuts walnuts do contain the most amount of omega 3 in proportion to Omega 6 but still contain far more omega 6 than omega 3. 

 

Summary: We now recommend Black Seed Oil, as a high quality source of Parent Omega 6, (maintenance use 1 teaspoon daily but more for serious health problems) supplemented with a variety of nuts, e.g Walnuts, Almonds, and pumpkin, and sunflower seeds, (or their unheated cold extracted oils) preferably in their whole form, eaten raw and fresh. Just one heaped dessertspoon of any of these daily is sufficient, or more if used in the treatment of a serious health disorder.  Do not consume roasted nuts as this will supply a source of degraded oils.

 

Heated, degraded, hydrogenated oils are transferred to cell membranes and create the basis of serious disease including Coronary heart disease and cancer. Raw unheated Parent essential oils especially omega 6 is required to nourish the cell membranes and are essential for many metabolic functioning including delivery of oxygen to every cell in the body.  Cholesterol is the transporter of these essential oils around the body, so cholesterol deficient diets or cholesterol lowering drugs reduce the transport of these essential nutrients to the cells.

 

All these points are discussed in detail in Brian Peskin articles, the links to them are given at the end of this information 

[ Essential Fatty Acids in NUTS ]

-  Approximate EFA content in grams per 100 grams -

Omega-3s (100g) (g)    Omega-6s (100g) (g)

  Walnuts      5.5                   Walnuts   28

  Hazelnuts  trace                Hazelnuts  4

  Cashews    trace               Cashews    8

  Almonds    trace                Almonds  10

  Brazils        trace                Brazils      23

 

[ Essential Fatty Acids in SEEDS ]

- Approximate EFA content in grams per 100 grams -

Omega-3s (100g)  (g)    Omega-6s (100g)  (g)

Flax / Linseeds    15-25        Flax / Linseeds     6

Pumpkin seeds    7-10         Pumpkin seeds   20

Sunflower seeds  trace        Sunflower seeds  30

Sesame seeds     trace        Sesame seeds     25

 

Extract from the article 

The Scientific Calculation of the Optimum PEO Ratio - by Brian Scott Peskin, BSEE

Important Organ and Tissue PEO Ratios—We Need toKnow This. 

 

It is necessary for us to study the PEO composition of various tissues and organs like your brain, skin, heart and muscle to discover the overall PEO requirement of the body. It is known from pathology studies that the brain and nervous system have a ratio of one part omega-6 to one part omega-3 (1 to 1).

 

Here’s a shocker that appeared in the medical journal article: "Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men”  "A little-known but very key fact about muscle structure that many nutrition writers overlook is that muscle contains from 5.5 to 7.5 times more omega-6 than omega-3, depending on the degree of physical condition!  On average, a muscle contains 6.5 times more omega-6 than omega-3 (a ratio of 6.5 to 1).  Also, one must understand most other tissues in the body contain a 4 to 1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3.

 

The next thing to consider is what percentage of your body weight do the various organs constitute?  We find that brain and nerve-related organs make up only about 3% of body weight, a very small quantity. The remaining organs, such as your heart, liver, skin and pancreas, make up approximately 9% of body weight.  And the last—a very important figure—is the percentage of body weight your muscles comprise.  Muscle accounts for close to half of human body weight (50%).  Skin comprises approximately 4% of body weight.

 

Parent Essential Oil Supplement Analysis Shockingly, there is virtually NO omega-3 in skin.  This is a reason why omega-3 recommendations have done nothing to decrease the skin cancer epidemic.

 

           [ Ratio of Tissue Composition ]

Tissue                       PEO Omega-3 : PEO Omega-6 

Brain/Nervous System                       1  :  1

Organs and Other Tissues               4   :  1

Muscles                                          6.5  :  1

Skin                                             1,000  :  1

Adipose Tissue (bodyfat)                22  :  1

 

There is virtually NO omega-3 in skin tissue.  Now, many nutritional writers state that simply because the brain has a 1 to 1 omega-6 to 3 ratio, a 1 to 1 omega-6 to 3 ratio makes the ideal supplement.  But this analysis is wrong. It should be obvious from the table below that the majority of our PEO-containing tissues and organs require much more unadulterated omega-6 than omega-3 to function properly.  If we use the PEO ratio of the brain and nervous system tissue (1 to 1), more than half the remaining tissues in the body will be shorted on omega-6 PEOs. 

 

On the other hand, keeping these tissues supplied with enough unprocessed omega-6 is the key that most nutrition writers overlook. 

 

Letting any tissues run short on these omega-6 PEOs, as will occur if you follow the most prevalent nutritional recommendations, creates a significant omega-6 deficit.  It is obvious that the low omega-6/3 ratio in the brain of just 1:1 is more than offset by the skin’s extremely high ratio of omega-6/3 of 1000:1.  This conclusion is based both on the total weight of the skin being greater than the brain’s weight and the tremendous difference of Omega-6/3 ratio between these organs.  The ratios are quite conservative; there is actually even more parent omega-6 than indicated above.

 

One Last Important Question About Supplementation

You may be wondering why the animal protein that we consume from beef, other red meats, poultry, eggs, pork and fish doesn’t give us enough of the required parent omega-6.  Why should we need to acquire so much through supplementation?

 

To answer this, you need to understand several things. First, heat significantly destroys both omega-3 (extremely heat sensitive) and omega-6 (very heat sensitive) PEOs.  The less cooked the proteins are, the better sources they are of parent omega-6 and 3.  However, few people enjoy or can stomach meat, fish or eggs that are raw or only lightly cooked.  So large quantities of PEOs are lost through cooking.  On top of this, the parent omega-6 content of the tissues and organs of animals can vary greatly depending on what the animals are fed.  While cattle and other grazing animals’ original natural foods—live grass and other plants growing in pastures—have a more balanced PEO content, the grains that much of the cattle being raised today are fed have a highly unbalanced PEO content in favor of omega-6 by as high as 10 to 1.  This sounds wonderful—just what we need—until you factor in that cooking renders a significant portion of those omega-6s inactive.   Also, PEO damage occurs as a result of the chemically assisted farming methods begun in the 1900s to treat both soils and crops.

 

https://www.regenerativenutrition.com/content.asp?id=494

By Dr. Mercola

 

Not All Omega-3s Are Made the Same

It's crucial to understand that not all omega-3 fats are created equal. There are two areas of confusion about omega-3s that I will attempt to clarify here:

Marine animal- versus plant-based omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) versus alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) 
The difference between fish- and krill-based omega-3 (triglyceride-bound omega-3s versus phospholipid-bound omega-3s)

For starters, omega-3 fats can be obtained from both marine animal and plant sources, but contrary to popular belief, they are simply NOT interchangeable. 

In recent years, a "myth" of sorts has sprung up, where people who avoid animal foods believe they can simply consume plant-based omega-3 ALA to meet their needs. But this isn't true and the science doesn't support this assertion. 

Omega-3s EPA/DHA are essential polyunsaturated fats your body needs for a variety of functions, including digestion, muscle activity, blood clotting, visual acuity, memory and learning, and basic cell division and function of cell receptors. 

Omega-3s EPA/DHA are considered "essential" fats as your body cannot make them and, hence, you must get them from your diet. Omega-3 ALA on the other hand is quite ubiquitous in the diet and therefore there is no real need to supplement.

Plant-based omega-3 has 18 carbons whereas marine-based omega-3s have between 20 and 22. They all have their first double-bond in the third position — hence the name "omega-3." However, as you will see below, the difference in the length of the carbon chain makes a significant difference. 

This is where the distinction between long-chain and short-chain omega-3s comes from. EPA and DHA are long-chain fatty acids and ALA is a short-chain fatty acid. 

Although your body can convert some of the ALA found in plants to the DHA found in marine oils, it is very rare for it to be more than 5 percent and typically found to be 1 to 3 percent, or even less. This is an insufficient amount to have any significant benefit.

 

Animal- Versus Plant-Based Omega-3

Here's a rundown of the core differences between marine-animal and plant-based omega-3s:15,16,17,18,19

Marine animal-based omega-3

• Sources: Fatty fish (such as salmon, anchovies, sardines and herring), fish and krill oils.

• Primary omega-3 content: DHA: a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consisting of 22 carbons, and EPA: a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid consisting of 20 carbons.

• Long-chain fatty acids EPA and DHA are more readily available to your body.

• Your body also seems to have a significant capacity to synthesize another omega-3 fat, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), most likely by elongating  EPA.

• Biological effects: DHA and EPA are structural elements with many biological effects, most notably anti-inflammatory activity and communication within the cell and between cells. 

More than 90 percent of the omega-3 fat found in brain tissue is DHA; as much as 30 percent of the fatty mass of the prefrontal cortex is DHA and the development of a normal brain in a fetus is absolutely dependent on the availability of DHA. 

All other omega-3 fats are found only in trace amounts, including ALA, regardless of how much ALA you consume.20

 

Plant-based omega-3

• Sources: Certain plants, such as flaxseed, flaxseed oil, chia seeds, nuts (especially walnuts) and leafy greens.

• Primary omega-3 content: ALA is a short-chain fatty acid consisting of 18 carbons; it's conversion to long-chain fatty acids is very poor, around 1 to 3 percent.

• ALA is a precursor to EPA and DHA. However, enzymes are required to elongate and de-saturate the shorter 18 carbon ALA into long-chained omega-3. In most people,  this doesn't work very well and hence the conversion rate is very small. 

Typically, less than 1 percent of ALA is converted to EPA/DHA. Some studies have found the conversion rate to be as low as 0.1 to 0.5 percent.21 Your conversion is also dependent on having adequate levels of other vitamins and minerals. 

So, while a tiny amount of the ALA you consume can be converted by your body into long-chain omega-3, it's a highly inefficient strategy and nowhere near as helpful as supplying EPA/DHA directly from marine sources.

• Biological effects: Source of energy (fat).

 

 

Key Difference: ALA Is a Source of Energy Whereas EPA and DHA Are Structural Elements

According to Nils Hoem, Ph.D., a leading scientist in omega-3 phospholipids whom I recently interviewed, when you look at the uptake and distribution of EPA and DHA you see something rather strange. 

After eating a meal of salmon or taking a krill or fish oil, the fatty acid level in your plasma (blood) will remain elevated for more than three days afterward. "Your body works on its distribution, redistribution and re-redistribution for three days. That's hardly consistent with being "just food," he says.   

On the other hand, the short-chain omega-3s (ALA) are rapidly absorbed, peaking a couple of hours after ingestion. Within 10 hours, they're gone. This suggests your body is using them very differently. 

According to Hoem, the short-chain fatty acids are simply food — they're a source of energy — while the long-chain fatty acids, those with 20 and more carbons, especially EPA and DHA, are structural elements. So EPA and DHA are not just "food;" they're elements that actually make up your cells, and those are two completely different functions. To learn more about this, please keep your eye out for Hoem's interview, which is scheduled to run shortly. 

EPA and DHA are extensively distributed throughout your body, including your heart and brain. In fact, research shows there are specific transporters in your blood-brain barrier, the placenta (in pregnant women), and likely also in your liver, which transport these molecules in a very precise way into the cell membranes where they belong.

 

The Difference Between Fish- and Krill-Based Omega-3

 

The next area of confusion relates to the different types of marine-based omega-3. Fish and krill are two sources that provide both EPA and DHA. However, there are important differences between these two marine sources of omega-3s. One of the most important differences between fish and krill oil is the fact that krill oil is bound to phospholipids. 

Fatty acids are water insoluble, so they cannot be transported directly in their free form in your blood — they require "packaging" into lipoprotein vehicles. Most fatty acids are typically bound to esters, which do not travel efficiently in your bloodstream. The phospholipids in krill oil seem to be partially different in this regard. 

  • Fish oil is bound to triglycerides and methyl esters

  • Krill oil is bound to triglycerides and phospholipids

Phospholipids are also one of the principal compounds in high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which you want more of, and by allowing your cells to maintain structural integrity, phospholipids help your cells function properly. (You can learn more about this in the video above.) 

There's also a synthetic form of marine omega-3, which is bound to ethyl esters. This is simply a fatty acid that has been sliced off from its triglyceride source and then ethylated with ethanol. Pharmaceutical omega-3 supplements are typically made this way, and research shows ethyl esters, unless taken in conjunction with a meal, may simply pass through your body without being absorbed whatsoever.

 

 

Other Advantages of Krill Oil Over Fish Oil

 

Research also shows krill oil has a number of other advantages over fish oil, including the following:

 

Higher potency

Studies have shown that krill oil is more potent than fish oil. This means you need far less of it than fish oil, as confirmed by a 2011 study published in the journal Lipids.22 Researchers gave subjects less than 63 percent as much krill-based EPA/DHA as the fish oil group, yet both groups showed equivalent blood levels — meaning the krill was more potent. 

 

Contains phosphatidylcholine

When you consume fish oil, your liver has to attach it to phosphatidylcholine in order for it to be utilized by your body. Krill oil already contains phosphatidylcholine, which is another reason for its more efficient cellular uptake. Phosphatidylcholine is composed partly of choline, the precursor for the vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which sends nerve signals to your brain, and for trimethylglycine, which protects your liver. 

Choline is important to brain development, learning and memory. In fact, choline plays a vital role in fetal and infant brain development, so it is particularly important if you are pregnant or nursing.

 

Resists oxidation

Fish oil is quite prone to oxidation, and oxidation leads to the formation of free radicals. Consuming free radicals further increases your need for antioxidants. Fish oil is very low in antioxidants whereas krill oil contains astaxanthin — probably the most potent antioxidant in nature — which is why krill oil is so stable and resistant to oxidation.

 

Contaminant-free

Fish are very prone to mercury and other heavy metal contamination, courtesy of widespread water pollution. Antarctic krill is not prone to this contamination. Not only are they fished from cleaner waters, but since krill is at the bottom of the food chain, it feeds on phytoplankton and not other contaminated fish. 

Although processed fish oil can be purified, it requires extensive additional damaging processing to do so, unlike krill, which is not contaminated from the start and requires no additional processing to achieve high purity levels.

 

Source: Articles.Mercola.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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