Mitochondria / Brain-Gut Detox
Chapter 4 Detoxifying the Gut-Brain
This second brain (the gut) is a network of more than 100 million neurons that communicate directly with the brain in your head.
The gut produces 95% of the serotonin ("feel good" hormone/neurotransmitter ) in the body.
Serotonin plays a crucial role in developing our forebrain which process our emotions.
Serotonin enhances the growth of new neurons in the hippocampus (the part of the limbic brain that regulates the fight-or-flight system. It also enables us to learn from new experiences).
Serotonin is converted at nighttime into melatonin to signal the brain that it's time to release ordinary reality and enter the realm of dream.
Serotonin is chemically analogous to DMT, "the spirit molecule".
DMT can be synthesized by the pineal gland.
DMT is ubiquitous in nature. Most plants and animals have it.
DMT is also a component of hallucinogens traditionally used by indigenous peoples of the Americas, including ayahuasca, psychedelic concoction brewed up by Amazon healers as an aid to visioning and healing.
What happens in the gut affects the whole body
A healthy gut is filled with trillions of friendly intestinal flora that help you digest food properly, attract all the nutrition from it, and manufacture vitamins.
Friendly bacteria synthesizes vitamins B, C, and K, leading early investigators to call the gut microflora collectively "the forgotten organ".
Friendly bacteria helps reduce cellular inflammation and keep toxins in check.
Friendly bacteria trains your immune system to tell the difference between pathogens and non harmful antigens (that help you fight disease).
Maintaining this balance prevents your immune system from overreacting to certain antigens (i.e. allergies). Recently, there's been a big increase in the number of people with a debilitating form of colitis known as Clostridium difficile, or C-diff, that's linked to an imbalance in the gut caused by antibiotic use.
The Toxic Effect of Grain
Genetic engineering isn't the only way in which toxins from food can harm the gut. One of the problem is that the wheat we're eating is not the wheat people ate even 75 years ago. To eliminate famine in places like the Soviet Union, the post-World War II green revolution introduced a high yield dwarf wheat containing 20 times more gluten than the old European strains. Whether or not you're among those who suffer from celiac disease, the harsh truth is that we all have become gluten intolerant to a surprising degree. Human digestive system hasn't evolved to function well on a grain-based diet.
Carbohydrates from grain break down into glucose, which can serve as fuel for the brain. But carbs are not the best fuel. The higher-order circuits in the human brain evolved to run on fats. When the brain is fueled by sugars from grain, it reverts to a primitive, predatory survival mode, adversely affecting our moods, mental functioning, and overall health.
The Toxic Effects of Sugar
The most deadly toxin found in nearly every kitchen cupboard in America is sugar. Sugar in all forms except honey reduces your levels of BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (a hormone that triggers the growth of new neurons and stem cells in the brain). Sugary foods and carbohydrates stimulate the same centers in the brain that are stimulated by drugs like heroin and cocaine. They release the neurotransmitter dopamine, triggering a pleasure response, so you associate the food with pleasure, and then, wanting more pleasure, you eat more of the food. The cycle continues, and you become addicted to comfort foods. Whenever you give in to your cravings and reach for a cookie or a breakfast muffin or plate of pasta, that means the bad bacteria are winning the battle for your gut.
Not all toxins come from the environment. Toxins are released inside the body by:
the breakdown of hormones, and
by the "bad" microbes in the gut
The gut's immune system signals the brain to produce high levels of CRF(corticotropin-releasing factor), which triggers increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol and the neurotransmitter dopamine, and reduces serotonin levels.
Perils of A Leaky Gut
The lining of the intestines is only one cell thick, and gluten can loosen the tight junctions in the gut wall. If it becomes permeable (leaky), undigested food fragments and bacteria can slip through the gut lining and into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, the immune system treats gluten like an invading bad microbe. This sets off an autoimmune reaction, releasing chemokines and cytokines (the chemical messengers), which instruct killer T cells to attack the gut lining.
This results not only in digestive disturbances but also in food sensitivities, rashes, joint pain, and inflammation throughout the body. Meanwhile, the liver and kidneys go into overdrive to process all the toxins that have entered the bloodstream, many of which end up passing through the blood-brain barrier.
The effect of leaky gut syndrome on the brain can be dramatic and far-reaching: headaches, brain fog, poor concentration, short-term memory loss. Some people with leaky gut experience depression or anxiety. Others become hyperactive, impulsive, and short-tempered.
The toxic load on the brain disables the higher circuits for love, beauty, creativity, and joy. The brain goes on autopilot, turning the controls over to more primitive limbic brain with its four basic responses to life: fight, flee, feed, or fornicate. In this condition, you have absolutely no chance of experiencing the higher states of consciousness.
The number one change that can repair a leaky gut and reverse the toxin overload is to eliminate sugar and gluten from your diet, and replenish the friendly intestinal flora. Detoxifying from sugar requires eliminating not just the obvious sugary foods but also processed grains, which turn into glucose instantly. Note that the minimum daily requirement of processed carbohydrates is zero.
Abstaining from food has a long history going back millennia as a way to cleanse body and mind in anticipation of spiritual experience. Traditionally, shaman would subsist on water for a few days to prime the brain to function optimally, unmuddled by toxins.
We fast to turn on the body's repair mechanisms and clear brain fog. Reducing the intake of sugars and processed carbs for more than a few hours triggers a process called autophagy, in which debris inside the cells is recycled into a form the cells can use as building blocks.
Even during a very short fast, amazing things happen to the body and brain. In just 24hours, the production of human growth hormone increased by 1,500 % repairing cells that make up our tissues.
Not eating sugars for as little as 18 hours wakes up the body's system for self-repair, detoxifies cells, and switches on the longevity genes. Fasting to detox involves not eating any sugars or grains between 6 pm and noon the next day
Detoxifying: What to Expect
For the first few days of detoxification, as you remove sugars, processed grains, and processed foods from your diet, it's normal to feel tired, achy, and uncomfortable. you may also experience gas, bad breath, or headaches while the toxins are leaving your body. Drinking plenty of water will help speed the process by flushing out toxins through the kidneys and bladder. You will also eliminate toxins through the skin: you can expect to sweat more than usual. For the first few days of your detox, allow yourself extra rest.
Don't be surprised if you experience brain fog and difficulty focusing while you're detoxing. toxins are stores in the fat in the grain and during detox your brain will begin to release them into your blood stream so you can eliminate them. You may also feel irritable and moody. Physical detox tends to loosen up long-buried emotions. Toxic emotions bind to physical toxins and your body will be working hard at clearing out the physical and emotional poisons. Pay attentions to feelings and memories that surface during this time. You may re-experience old wounds that run deep. This is not the time to make big decisions or confront others about personal issues.
I recommend journaling during your 7 day detox. Journaling will help you gain perspective on past experiences that you may be reliving in the present, and processing old hurts may bring you to a place of forgiveness. In fact, after a few days, as your head starts to clear, you're likely to have a very different take on your problems. Because your body is functioning better, you may find that you're sleeping less but feeling more rested.
Four Meals a Day
Detoxing through the skin, kidney, liver, and lungs will proceed more efficiently if you eat good, healthy, organic foods during the process. The basic menu to prepare your brain and body for One Spirit awareness consists of plenty of fresh fibrous vegetables; healthy nuts, sees, and oils; and omega-3-rich fish. These foods will provide plenty of the right kind of fats to fuel the brain. To support your gut-brain and mitochondrial function it's advisable to get most of your fats from nuts, seeds, avocados, and healthy oils like coconut oil, cold-pressed extra virgin olive oil, and flaxseed oil.
Also be sure to eat plenty of fibrous cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, broccoli, and cabbage. The cruciferous vegetables aid in the detox process by switching on the Nrf2 pathway, a genetic pathway that regulates production of antioxidants and detox enzymes, and turns on the longevity genes inside the cells. Avoid root vegetables, which have a high glycemic index, raising blood-sugar levels.
During the detox, limit your fruit intake to one serving a day, eaten in the afternoon and avoid fruit juices which will spike your blood sugar. Start your day instead with a fresh green juice made from organic green vegetables. If you wish, you can add a small amount of carrot or apple to the juice to improve the taste.
After detox, your system will be able to handle moderate amounts of other healthy foods that are not on the detox menu. At that point, you can add one cup of coffee a day and the occasional glass of wine. I'm not suggesting you ban high-glycemic foods like watermelon and beets from your diet for the rest of your life. Just pay attention to your body's signals and you moods so that you will know when you need to detoxify again.
During your seven-day detox, you will eat our meals a day, including two breakfasts, without any junk-food snacks in between. Upon waking in the morning, begin the day with your first breakfast --- a drink made from green, leafy vegetables, particularly kale. Later in the morning, you'll have a second breakfast that will include healthy fats like avocados and proteins like eggs or smoked salmon, but no fruit or grains.
You can have fruit with your lunch if you wish, along with steamed begins and your choice of protein. The protein might be fish or quinoa, a "pseudo-grain" that is gluten-free and closely related to spinach and beetroot. Nutrient rich quinoa is high in good fats and protein.
Dinner will be a light meal, again with a protein dish and healthy fats. Just be sure to finish all eating for the day by 6 PM. This will give you a full 12-hour period of fasting overnight, and 18 hours off the glucose-building system, allowing your cells to go into autophagy.
Although for millennia a plant-based diet was standard fare for humans, most of us aren't used to having green juices, salads, and vegetable soups for breakfast. To make dishes tastier, you can add nuts, seeds, and healthy oils, as well as fresh or dried herbs. While you're preparing for One Spirit Medicine, use only fax seed oil or extra virgin olive oil to flavor foods and dress salads. For cooking, use only coconut oil, which can withstand high temperatures. Don't cook with olive oil, which breaks down with heat.
Never boil vegetables or overcook them, as you'll break down the fiber and destroy the phytonutrients and vitamins. Instead, steam vegetables or sauté the in vegetable broth with herbs. Or eat the raw, drizzled with healthy oils.
The physical and emotional lift you get from a seven-day detox may inspire you to switch permanently to a plant-based, organic diet with healthy fats and no processed grains.
SUPPLEMENTS FOR ONE SPIRIT DETOX
Plan to take the following supplements every day during your seven-day detox. You will be taking fairly high doses of some supplements, but only for the duration of the detox. (For directions on continuing their use after your detox, see Chapter 5, Superfoods and Super Supplements.)
MORNING (ON ARISING)
Vitamin B 12 is essential for liver detoxification and for preserving intact DNA, important for cell growth. Be sure to take sublingual methylcobalamin, an enhanced form of B 12 that dissolves quickly under the tongue. Take 2,500 micrograms (mcg).
Vitamin C is essential for detoxification processes. Take 2,000 milligrams (mg).
Vitamin D3 is essential to enable the body to absorb calcium, and it can prevent or reduce depression, dementia, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. During the seven-day detox, take 5,000 IU of vitamin D3.
S-acetyl glutathione is the first truly bioavailable form of the free-radical scavenger glutathione. Take 1 g in the morning on an empty stomach.
DHA and EPA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are omega-3 fatty acids important for brain health and preventing Alzheimer's. They're found in fish, nuts, seeds, and certain oils. but supplements are recommended. Take 3 g.
Curcumin, the active ingredient in the spice turmeric, activates the genes that turn on powerful antioxidants in the brain. Take 1 g. Be sure it is in liposomal form.
Trans-resveretrol, found in red wine and red grapes, also triggers production of the brain's antioxidants and regulates genes that activate apoptosis, programmed cell death. Take 500 mg.
Pterostilbene, found in blueberries and grapes, works with trans-resveratrol to prevent cancer and other diseases. Take 250 mg.
ProAlive Probiotic resettles healthy flora in the gut and facilitates digestion. Take five drops in water. (You can order at www.ascendedhealth.com)
Coconut oil is jet fuel for the brain. Take 1 tsp in the morning and 1 tsp in the mid afternoon.
EVENING (TWO HOURS AFTER DINNER):
Alpha-lipoic acid helps eliminate toxins and heavy metals embedded in brain tissue. Take one 600 mg capsule.
Magnesium citrate helps with your bowel movement and to eliminate waste, as well as relax your muscles. Take 500 mg capsules or a teaspoonful of powdered.
OTHER AIDS TO DETOXIFICATION
Baths, Brushing, and Sauna
Keep your bowls moving once or twice a day.
Limit you intake of meat and eliminate all dairy during your detox.
Chapter 5 Superfoods and Super Supplements
Some 50,000 years ago we became more skilled at the hunt. But even then, animals were consciered sacred, and their lives were not to be taken lightly. Starting around 6,000 years ago, the typical human diet changed. Locked into working their yields, agricultural-era human had a diet centered on the crops they grew. The wild plants the hunter-gatherers harvested and ate served a both food and medicine. It's only very recently that we've become efficient enough at catching fish and game and breeding animals to make them the centerpiece of our diet.
What most of us don't realize is that plants provide vital information to the boy beyond simply ensuring a balanced diet. Scientists have found that plants are master regulators of gene expression in humans. (Gene expression refers to the process by which DNA makes the proteins that make up the body.) MicoRNAs --- single strands of plant genetic material --- actually circulate through the bloodstream, switching genes on and off. MiRNAs are the ultimate social networkers, sending messages quickly to individual genes. They have the power to switch on the genes that create health and to switch off the genes that create cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and many of the other ailments of civilization.
The On Spirit Medicine program relies on juicing green leafy vegetables in the morning, to instruct your genes to repair the organs and systems in your body and restore brain health. The instructions provided by the greens and the supplements will switch on stem cell production in the brain and throughout the body. You can have your fiber-rich veggies later, at lunch. Root vegetables are not recommended during detox.
Some plants are considered superfoods because of their high phytonutrient content and the high quality of the information they provide to your DNA. Phyto comes from the Greek for plants. Phytonutrients, or phytochemicals, are the naturally occurring compounds in plants that protect them from bad bacteria, fungi, pests, and other invaders, and account for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other healing properties. Phytonutrients are the reason the tribes I met along the Amazon did not suffer from the four greatest maladies of modern life: cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and dementia.
Phytonutrient-rich plants like the cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes, and various nuts and seeds are central to the diets of people who live in blue zones --- areas around the globe where the inhabitants have unusually high longevity and good health, most notably Okinawa (Japan), Sardinia (Italy), Nicoya (Costa Rica), Ikaria (Greece), and Loma Linda (California, large community of Seventh-Day Adventists).
As Jo Robinson, author of Eating on the Wild Side: The Missing Link to Optimum Health, explains, "Wild dandelions, once a springtime treat for Native Americans, have seven times more phytonutrients than spinach. A purple potato native to Peru has 28 times more cancer-fighting anthocyanines [flavonoids] than common russet potatoes. One species of apple has a 100 times more phytonutrients than the Golden Delicious displayed in our supermarkets." The resin for this nutrient loss, Robinson explains, is that for the last 10,000 years, farmers have been selecting the sweetest, least bitter plants to grow in their files, selectively breeding out the sour taste of most wild foods. Today we understand the bitter, astringent flavor of some vegetables indicates that the plant is high in polyphenols that protect it from disease and pests.
1. Cruciferous Vegetables
(Cruciferous doesn't refer to a property of the vegetables but rather to the petals of the plants, which grow in the shape of a cross.)
Cruciferous vegetables activate the Nrf2 detox system inside cells. Nrf2 is a powerful protein and transcription factor able o protect every organ in the body and every kind of tissue against disease. It is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms designed to cope with oxidants --- free radicals --- and oxidative stress produced by toxins and carcinogens. ( A free radical is a molecule that has lost an electron and tires to steal one from another molecule, leading to inflammation and a host of other medical challenges.)
Cabbage and Brussels sprout
2. Other Phytonurient-Rich Vegetables
Arugula, Spinach, Swiss chard, Lettuce, Kelp, Parsley, Cilantro,Basil
3. Turmeric and Curcumin
4. Nuts and Seeds
7. Fermented Foods
For our ancestors, fermentation was a way of preserving food and minimizing its health, benefits, using naturally occurring bacteria to convert sugars into lactic acid. Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, Ph.D. of the Weston A. Price Foundation, explain how fermentation works:
Starches and sugars in vegetables and fruits are converted into lactic acid by the many species of lactic-acid-producing bacteria. These lactobacilli are ubiquitous, present on the surface of all living things and especially numerous on leaves and roots of plants growing in near the ground.
8. Prebiotics and Probiotics
Prebiotics promote the growth of good flora in your gut. Cruciferous vegetables have been called prebiotics because they contain fiber that the good flora feed on, serving as the latticework for growing good flora. Probiotics are healthy flora that facilitate digestion and protect the gut. A single gram of earth contains over 40 billion probiotic bacteria. If you don't feel you can take a supplement. The best I've found are ProAlive Probiotic at ascendedhealth.com that my friend Compton Rom Baba, a microbiologist has gathered from the five longevity regions around the planet. Compton's bio-intelligent probiotics can repopulate the flora in your gut in a matter of weeks, whereas off-the-shelf formulas that contain dead or inactive flora generally take much longer and aren't as effective.
9. Nutritional Supplements
We review them in the role they can have in your everyday diet. These supplements affect the gut-brain in different ways, but they all play a role in how your brain and the organs in your body repair and regenerate. Pay close attention to how you feel, and learn your body's subtle messages.
DHA, docosahexanoic acid, makes up 40% of the brain. Breast milk is nearly 50% DHA. DHA works closely with another omega-3 fatty acid, EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid. Both are found in fish, nuts, seeds, and certain oils. The best DHA coms from krill. Researchers have noted an 85% reduction in the risk for Alzheimer's among people with high levels of DHA in their diet.
ALA, alpha-lipoid acid, is found in every cell in the body and plays an important role in detoxification. ALA can cross the blood-brain barrier, so it helps release toxins from the brain. In a process known as chelation, ALA binds to heavy metals so they can be excreted through the liver, kidneys, and ski. ALA also supports the liver's ability to eliminate toxins during detoxification. You can take 300 mg a day.
Turmeric increases levels of SOD, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione --- two antioxidants important to brain functioning that are described in detail in Chapter 6, Resetting the Death Clock. The dosage is 1 g a day of curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, in tablet form, of half of this amour if taken in a liposomal form.
Trans-resveratrol, a compound found in red wine, red grape skins, and certain berries, turns on longevity genes and triggers the production of antioxidants. Resveratril also boosts SOD and glutathione, the brain's super antioxidants. The recommended dose is 500 mg a day.
Petrostilbene, found in blueberries and grapes, has been sown to lower cholesterol and glucose, and reduce blood pressure. Trans-resveratril works upstream, regulating the genes that activate apoptosis --- programmed cell death --- while petrostilbene works downstream, toning off the genes that allow cancer cells to grow and proliferate. One 250mg capsule of pterosilbene a day is recommended.
Vitamin B 12 is essential for liver detoxification and for repairing the myelin sheath around neurons. It is also needed for preserving th integrate of DNA for cel reproduction and for production of neurotransmitters. Most Americans are B12 deficient. Take 2.000 mg daily for the week.
Vitamin C is essential for all detoxification processes. Take 1g daily.
Vitamin D3 the form of vitamin D that the body manufactures when it's exposed to sunlight. Fish and fish liver oil are almost the only dietary sources of vitamin D, although egg yolks, beef over, fortified milk and cheese contain small amounts. Individuals who thane 600 IU or more show 50% less dementia and Alzheimer's than control groups.
S-acetyl glutathione (A-GSH) is the first truly bioavailable form of glutathione, which scavenges free radicals. It protects DNA from damage and is crucial for energy metabolism and optimal mitochondrial function. Take 200mg daily.
Coconut oil is jet fuel for the brain. It is a medium-chain triglyceride, which means it goes through the intestinal wall without causing an insulin spike and into the mitochondria inside cell. Take 2 Tbsp daily.
We are already taking too many vitamins and minerals that are poorly absorbed by the gut. See the guide on page 55 (Chapter 4) for using supplements to support your body detox naturally.
by David Perlmutter, M.D. and Alberto Villoldo
from Power Up Your Brain
Mitochondria are the conductors of the genetic orchestra that regulate how every cell ages, divides, and dies. They wave the baton that helps dictate which genes are switched on and which are switched off in every one of our cells. They provide the fuel for establishing new neural networks. All of the mitochondrial DNA in your body is inherited solely from your mother's lineage. The source of energy that sustains your life is derived exclusively from the women in your family tree---your matrilineage.
Mitochondria were first observed by the German pathologist Richard Altmann in 1890. Seen through a microscope, these small intracellular par tiles look like tiny, threadlike grains. Hence the name mitochondria, derived from the Greek mitos meaning "thread," and chondrin, meaning "grain." It was not until 1949, however, that the role of mitochondria, as the producers of cellular energy, was fully explained by two biological chemistry researchers, Eugene Kennedy of the Harvard Medical School and Albert Lehninger, then of the University of Wisconsin.
Mitochondria use carbohydrates as fuel, which they convert into life-sustaining energy with the by-products of water and carbon dioxide. This process is called oxidative metabolism, so named because oxygen is consumed in the process, just as oxygen is consumed by fire. Unlike in a fire, which releases energy in an uncontrolled reaction, the energy produced by mitochondria is stored in a chemical "battery," a unique molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP can then be transported throughout the cell, releasing energy on demand in the presence of specific enzymes. Mitochondria also create a by-product related to oxygen called reactive oxygen species (ROS), also known as free radicals.
The Role of Free Radicals
These free radicals perform and important, positive function in human physiology. They play a pivotal part in regulating apoptosis, Apoptosis happens when genetic switches that instruct a cell to die are turned on. Until quite recently, scientists pretty much subscribed to the paradigm that all cellular functions, including apoptosis, were directed by the cell nucleus. But, as Nick Lane notes in his compelling book, Power, Sex, Suicide, "There has been a change of emphasis that amounts to a revolution, overturning the paradigm. The paradigm was that the nucleus is the operations center of the cell, and controls its fate. In many respects this is of course true, but in the case of apoptosis it is not. Remarkably, cell lacking a nucleus can still commit apoptosis. The discovery was that the mitochondria control the fate of the cell: they determine whether a cell shall live or die."
Hippocrates was the first to use the term apoptosis, which literally means "the falling of leaves from a tree." However, apoptosis didn't gain traction in the scientific community until the pathologist Alastair R. Currie published an important paper describing cellular self-destruction as a basic biological phenomenon. Thereafter, researches used apoptosis to describe the process through which the body intentionally eliminates cells in order to serve a larger purpose.
This process begins even while the fetus is in the womb. As an example, during embryonic development, human hands initially resemble the webbed appendages of a frog. But death of the cells in the webbed area transforms these extremities, allowing for definition of individual fingers and refinement of the entire hand. Furthermore, after birth, apoptosis is the protocol that enables your body to continuously rid itself of as many as ten billion cells every day, making room for new, healthier cells. The outcasts include a multitude of cancer cells.
Most of the time, when these pathogenic cells appear, mitochondria send a signal that tells them to die rather than replicate. This is a very important mitochondrial function because runaway cancer cells don't know they need to undergo apoptosis, and without that message from the mitochondria, they would continue to reproduce, out of control, until they endanger the host.
The Problem With Free Radicals and Cell Death
While cellular suicide, as described above is generally positive, it becomes a negative situation when mitochondrial function becomes impaired and sends signals that tell normal cells to die. This is the fundamental flaw in the mitochondrial mechanism that leads to the destruction of brain cells in essentially every neurodegenerative condition, including Alzheimer's, MS, Parkinson's, and Lou Gehrig's disease. His brain cell apoptosis is not limited to just these diseases. The process occurs throughout our lifetime and is responsible for a general decline in brain function, even if not categorized as a disease per se.
And the catalysts --- or culprits --- are free radicals. Free radicals are chemicals that cause oxidative damage to tissues, essentially causing the to rust like a piece of iron left exposed to the weather. They can also damage proteins, fat, and even DNA.
Mitochondria play a far more interesting role than simply being an energy factory and the source of ROS (reactive oxygen species = free radicals) . For instance, mitochondria possess their own DNA (referred to as mt-DNA). While the nucleus of the cell contains exactly two copies of its DNA, mitochondria may have anywhere from two to ten copies of DNA. Interestingly, the mt-DNA is arranged in a ring, a configuration much like that seen in bacteria. Furthermore, mitochondria and bacteria both lack the protein surrounding their genetic code, while nuclear DNA is invested with protective proteins called histones.
These similarities led the biologist Lynn Margulis to propose an important new theory of the origin of mitochondria. She poised that mitochondria evolved hundreds of millions of years ago from aerobic (oxygen-breathing) bacteria that gradually entered into an "endosymbiotic" relationship with anaerobic bacteria, which means they began to live inside the bodies of these other organisms. This symbiosis enabled the anaerobic organisms to survive in an oxygen-rich environment. Over time, the mitochondria assumed the primary function of energy production, intracellular signaling, apoptosis regulation, and perhaps communicating with the biosphere.
Human mt-DNA contains only37 genes, while n-DNA (DNA in the nucleus) has thousands, and it is possible that, over time, n-DNA has been taking on more of the functions of mitochondria, allowing other organelles in the cell to specialize in such activities as protein building, waste elimination, and reproduction. Eventually, one bacterium engulfed another. The result was that these formerly free organisms now reside within each of your cells. According to professor Enzo Nisoli of the University of Milan, a human adult possesses more than ten million billion mitochondria, making up a full 20% of the total body weight.
So, while nuclear DNA's main function is to provide the information your cells need to manufacture the various proteins that control the metabolism, repair, and structural integrity of your physical being, bot is mitochondrial DNA that directs the production and unionization of your life energy. It determines the fate of every cell, tissue, and organ in your body and the energetic fate of your being as a whole.
Source : Book "Power Up Your Brain - The Neuroscience of Enlightenment"
by David Perlmutter, M.D., F.A.C.N. and Alberto Villoldo, Ph.D.
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